He introduced the girl and the S to one another saying that the S had just finished the experiment and would tell her something about it. Oct. 2011. /ImageI Sandy was using_______ processing. This manufacturer is depending on the social process of______ to increase sales. Cognitive dissonance theory is the theory that we act to reduce discomfort we feel when two of our thoughts are inconsistent (Myers 2007). endobj Relat., 1953, 6, 185-214. $20 in the 1950s was equivalent to over $100 now. We mentioned in the introduction that Janis and King (1954; 1956) in explaining their findings, proposed an explanation in terms of the self-convincing effect of mental rehearsal [p. 209] and thinking up new arguments by the person who had to improvise a speech. Actually, the result, as may be seen in the table, are in exactly the same direction, and the magnitude of the mean differences is fully as large as on the first question. He then left saying he would return in a couple of minutes. The second area is whether the experiment gave the participant an opportunity to discover their own skills, using the scale of 0 to 10. In this study, research participants were asked to spend an hour completing boring tasks (for example, repeatedly loading spools onto a tray). The average ratings on this question, presented in the first row of figures in Table 1, are the results most important to the experiment. The students presumably put some effort into building and defending their arguments. In addition to these 5 exceptions, another 2 of the paid participants told the girl the truth that the tasks she will be performing are boring and uninteresting, and that they were just being paid to say otherwise. /Contents 58 0 R And, indeed, in the Control condition the average rating was -.45, somewhat on the negative side of the neutral point. When her boyfriend refuses, she asks, "Well, will you at least wash the dishes then?" Ben Franklin gave some peculiar advice that makes sense in the context of cognitive dissonance theory. If you want to keep people from hating each other, work on eliminating hateful behavior. In this study, Festinger and Carlsmith found that Prejudice is to ____ as discrimination is to _______. There is perhaps no surer way of infecting ourselves with virulent hatred toward a person than by doing him a grave injustice. 4. All of the following are decision points in helping behavior EXCEPT. The participants who were paid only $1 to perform the boring You have created 2 folders. A teacher decides against assigning group projects in which all groups members get the same grade. Leon Festinger's 1957 cognitive dissonance theory suggests that we act to reduce the disharmony, or dissonance, of our conflicting feelings. 112 Leon Festinger and James Carlsmith conducted a study on cognitive dissonance investigating on the cognitive consequences of forced compliance. The difference between the One Dollar condition (+1.20) and the Control condition (-.62) is significant at the .08 level (t = 1.78). Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology, 55, 72-75. Write to Dr. Dewey at psywww@gmail.com. The stove is too large to be moved out of his way, so he has to learn not to touch it -even when Martha isn't looking. After the half hour on the second task was over, the E conspicuously set the stop watch back to zero, put it away, pushed his chair back, lit a cigarette, and said: Up to this point the procedure was identical for Ss in all conditions. Some researchers believe that Milgram's results were a form of the________ technique of persuasion. Abused children grow up to become abusers about one third of the time. The true purpose of the experiment was then explained to the S in detail, and the reasons for each of the various steps in the experiment were explained carefully in relation to the true purpose. And lastly, participants were asked whether they would want to participate again in the future in a study the same as this, using the scale -5 to +5. If a person is induced to do or say something which is contrary to his private opinion, there will be a tendency for him to change his opinion so as to bring it into correspondence with what he has done or said. 0000094931 00000 n Subjects were subjected to a boring experience and then paid to tell someone that the experience had been interesting and enjoyable. The mean ratings for the One Dollar and Twenty Dollar conditions, averaging the ratings of the two independent raters, are presented in Table 2. This, however, was unlikely in this experiment because money was used for the reward and it is undoubtedly difficult to convince oneself that one dollar is more than it really is. Some have already been discussed. John was late to class, and his friend Eddie assumes that John simply doesn't care about being on time. To do otherwise would have been to create conflict or dissonance (lack of harmony) between their attitudes and their behavior. "Look, Officer, I didn't see the stop sign back there because the sun was in my eyes" The police officer responds, "You were not paying attention." Retrieved Mar 04, 2023 from Explorable.com: https://explorable.com/cognitive-dissonance. hXr8=fj*!US%mfy l8oIbR0Bn t7!g] %>))BI0` 98sUx GHM. So, to avoid dissonance, the person likes you. In this way, they propose, the person who is forced to improvise a speech convinces himself. When she gets up to play it at the recital in front of 100 people, she preforms it better than she ever has. /L 680077 It enabled us to measure the opinions of our Ss in a context not directly connected with our experiment and in which we could reasonably expect frank and honest expressions of opinion. // adblocker detected _____ is the attitude about members of a particular social group and _____ is the behavior that can result from that attitude. Shawn and Tanya start talking after they've ridden on the dorm elevator several times together. gsKkaO\Cw`c L J=x8;zy\kd7vHzl=1~6}4=m_IQfKn[3Mqwp0uyM-P:. Doing so, they started to identify with the arguments and accept them as their own. Sandy was a juror in the trial for a man accused of stealing guns from a sporting goods store. They had not enjoyed the experiment, but now they were asked to lie and say they had enjoyed it. He did this for one-half hour. Don't see what you need? Their prediction provedcorrect. FESTINGER, L. A theory of cognitive dissonance. New York: Harper & Row. To prevent groupthink, member's of a group should do all but which of the following? Sherif's 1936 study of conformity involved, asking participants to report the movement of a single point of light in a darkened room, The Challenger disaster is a classic example of groupthink because, some people knew the shuttle was not OK to launch but did not speak up and therefore disrupt group cohesion, Chris's roommate asks Chris to do him a favor, and Chris agrees. Violent video games have been blamed for all but which of the following? Obviously, Gerard knows nothing about. Those who were paid $1 were forced to rationalize their own judgments and convinced themselves that what they were doing is enjoyable because they had no other justification. A fraction of the subjects were thanked and let go after being interviewed by another experimenter regarding ways on how the presentation of the boring tasks can be improved for future purposes. The most likely predictor of the development of prejudice and discrimination between two groups is the degree of _____ between the groups. A person demanding for _______ has power or authority to command a behavioral change, rather than just ask for a change. . Hence, one would expect the results on this question to be very similar to the results on "how enjoyable the tasks were" but weaker. A police officer comes to Jane's office to discuss personal safety with the employees there. All of the following are causes for groupthink EXCEPT. Do a site-specific Google search using the box below. Cite details from the essay that support your response. The students presumably put some effort into building and defending their arguments. Which of the following was a finding in the classic study by Festinger and Carlsmith (1959)? D. It was Nicole's first year of high school. The content of what the S said before the girl made the remark that her friend told her it was boring. We tend to _____ attractive people more than we do less attractive people. New York: Harper & Row. Goleman, D. (1991, July 16) New way to battle bias: fight acts, not feelings. (Goleman, 1991) Some have already been discussed. 47 0 obj 0000000609 00000 n The opposite of Franklin's principle is described by Eric Hoffer, in The True Believer (1951). Because of the desirability of investigating this possible alternative explanation, we recorded on a tape recorder the conversation between each S and the girl. The influence of role-playing on opinion change. hb```s cB@q^2cTaX-mhp\fQgfL7uM^FD0a!&MMtm#4 3;:$:AGCk!;R )b0Hq$q4sX za4],JJAb$de\"p .j,D VZS Cognitive dissonance is at the heart of this insidious prejudice, write Berit Brogaard and Dimitria Gatzia. Which of the following is the best example of the behavioral component of an attitude? In the study, undergraduate students of Introductory Psychology at Stanford University were asked to take part of a series of experiments. This difference in Sandy's playing is most likely the result of_______. Control condition. Please upgrade to Cram Premium to create hundreds of folders! Do a site-specific Google search using the box below. Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology, 55, 72-75. Twenty Dollar condition. Let us consider a person who privately holds opinion "X" but has, as a result of pressure brought to bear on him publicly stated that he believes "not X.". Why this might have been the case is, of course, not immediately apparent. How Much They Learned From the Experiment. The behavioral component of prejudice is______. Desire to Participate in a Similar Experiment. Results of the experiment showed that even though the tasks were indeed boring and uninteresting, the unpaid control group rated the activity a negative 0.45 (-0.45). C. She knew she had to find something that she was interested in. Those who got $1 to perform a boring task said the task was more interesting than did those who got $2. Subjects rated this using a scale of negative 5 to positive 5 (-5 to +5). This short persuasive communication was made in all conditions in exactly the same way. It is clear from examining the table that, in all cases, the Twenty Dollar condition is slightly higher The differences are small, however, and only on the rating of "amount of time" does the difference between the two conditions even approach significance. Festinger and Carlsmith had predicted As a rule, cognitive dissonance theory predicts that attitudes and behaviors will remain in synchrony. This is an example of, Vince has always believed children deserve the best prenatal care available. Rating scale 0 to 10. He was told again to use one band and to work at his own speed. (1984, August) Psychology Today, pp.40-45. In this course, students are required to spend a certain number of hours as subjects (Ss) in experiments. Prejudice and discrimination are least likely to develop in which of the following situations? Kenneth Boulding, an economist and past president of the American Association for the Advancement of Science, described a pattern that relates to cognitive dissonance. Her parents attribute this to Elizabeth's laziness. J. abnorm. Franklin said if you want someone to like you, get that person to do you a favor. In the third element of social identity theory, people use _______ to improve their self-esteem. All Ss, without exception, were quite willing to return the money. /ID[<6F318BB6E8BA809AD9B6B9D834A90064><6F318BB6E8BA809AD9B6B9D834A90064>] /H [ 658 210 ] << We'll bring you back here when you are done. Festinger and Carlsmith's study now began to treat the 71 subjects in different ways such as to investigate the cognitive consequences of induced compliance to see whether there would be any evidence of Cognitive Dissonance, where the student concerned was psychologically di-stressed between his actual views and the role he found himself taking Cognitive Dissonance. Christopher D. Green Like in every other study, there are some responses that are deemed to be invalid. But nevertheless, the possibility exists that the Ss n the One Dollar condition may have improvised more. The Control condition gives us, essentially, the reactions of Ss to the tasks and their opinions about the experiment as falsely explained to them, without the experimental introduction of dissonance. The highest t value for any of these differences is only 0.48. /Info 46 0 R 0000000974 00000 n This question is less directly related to the dissonance that was experimentally created for the Ss. This is the, People are less likely to be susceptible to the foot-in-the-door technique, how far people would go in obeying the command of an authority figure, Social loafing can be explained by the fact that, it is easier for a lazy person to hide laziness when working in a group of people. From this point on, as the promised rewards or threatened punishment become larger, the magnitude of dissonance becomes smaller. 1 The subjects were then again interviewed afterwards and were asked to rate four different areas of the experiment. Cram has partnered with the National Tutoring Association, Conformity In The Stanford Prison Experiment, Stereotypes: The Role Of Discrimination In Social Groups, Summary Of Stereotypes That Affect Social Interaction. How do we explain this? The three components of attitude are _____, thoughts, and actions. (p.3). One other point before we proceed to examine the data. For an hour, you are required to perform dull tasks, such as turning wooden knobs again and again. A fraction of the participants (the control group) was thanked and let go after an interview. (Goleman, 1991). two different groups dealing with the aftermath of a hurricane. He must be a genius." & KING, B.T. In the study, undergraduate students of Introductory Psychology at Stanford University were asked to take part of a series of experiments. That is, in the One Dollar condition they may have rehearsed it more mentally, thought up more ways of saying it, may have said it more convincingly, and so on. What is the Sacrifice Trap? they shifted their attitudes and perceived the task as more enjoyable Physical attractiveness is most involved in which of the following aspects of persuasion? The five ratings were: 1. Seventy-one male students in the introductory psychology course at Stanford University were used in the experiment. Chris is showing, Carol is told by a police officer to move her car, and she does so. Ben Franklin gave some peculiar advice that makes sense in the context of cognitive dissonance theory. Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology, 58, 203-211. (1957) Attitude change through reward of verbal behavior. He also gives each taster a coupon worth $1 off his or her grocery bill. In groupthink, members of the group______. We weren't able to detect the audio language on your flashcards. 0000000015 00000 n 4. Behavior that is intended to hurt or destroy another person is referred to as. In order to teach her second grade students about ______, teacher Jane Elliot created in-groups and out-groups based on the superficial characteristic of eye color. Discourage questions and alternate solutions. The reliabilities of these ratings, that is, the correlations between the two independent raters, ranged from .61 to .88, with an average reliability of .71. Hence, the alternative explanation discussed above cannot account for the findings. bystander effect and diffusion of responsibly. Introducing Cram Folders! According to Festinger and Carlsmith, the participants experienced dissonance between the conflicting cognitions of telling someone that a particular task is interesting when the truth is, they found it rather uninteresting and boring. While it is true that the experiment took place in the 50s, the results are still being recognized up to this date. If you want to dislike someone, do them wrong. Fritz Heider developed _______ to explain why people choose the particular explanations of behavior that they do. It shows people will do anything to fit in with the group. The formation of in-groups and out-groups, The effect that people's awareness of the stereotypes associated with their social group has on their behavior is, Strategies for overcoming prejudice include. His data, however did not support this idea. The remaining subjects were asked to take the place of an experimenter, if they would want to. Prev page|Page top|Chapter Contents|Next page. Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology, 58, 203-210. Jane used ______ when receiving the officer's message. show that a person's private opinion will change to reduce dissonance when it conflicts with what they are forced to do, stanford uni students were asked to do simple, boring tasks for an hour and the researchers timed them with a stopwatch and took notes to make it seem as if the task was important, the participants were given either $1 or $20 to tell another student that the task was fun, there was a clear difference of opinion in the follow up interview. Hum. The results on this question are shown in the second row of figures in Table 1. The results are weakly in line with what one would expect if the dissonance were somewhat reduced in this manner. A person's conformity in a situation like the Asch line study is most likely to be strongest when________. That is uncomfortable, unless you have a good explanation for your behavior (such as being paid a lot of money). The difference between the One and Twenty Dollar conditions reaches the .08 level of significance on a two-tailed test (t = 1.79). This is an example of which rule of attraction? Dr. Nekita Fuller Maria agreed only to find out after agreeing that teaching such a course also meant that she would have to attend meetings of the honors professors, go to honors- oriented conventions, and take on special advising duties. Underline the correct form of the modifier in parentheses in each sentence. According to the social psychologist, the social comparison theory is the idea that there is a drive within individuals to search for outside images in order to evaluate their own opinions and abilities. The group most likely to become a scapegoat is the group. When the do not, they experience unpleasant mental tension or dissonance answer choices attribution theory cognitive dissonance theory reciprocity theory compliance theory Question 3 45 seconds Q. endobj Yet no one calls the police. The neurotransmitter that seems most involved in aggression is_________. This illustrates, If Julie holds the specific attitude that smoking is bad and will likely have an adverse effect on her health, possibly causing lung cancer or emphysema, Julie is, more likely to match her behavior to her attitude by not smoking, When trying to persuade an audience, the message should. 59 0 obj What is the term for the process of developing an opinion about another person? The other group was paid 1/20th as much, the equivalent of about $5 now. How are these 100 people likely to respond? I'm sure you'll enjoy it." If behavior is assumed to be caused by internal personality characteristics, this is known as___________. A follow-up psychiatric exam found no signs of psychological problems after 1 year. He reasoned that if the person is induced to make an overt statement contrary to his private opinion by the offer of some reward, then the greater the reward offered, the greater should be the subsequent opinion change. 4), we will here give only a brief outline of the reasoning. Hence, his cognition of his private belief is dissonant with his cognition concerning his actual public statement. If you make people treat you with respect, they will respect you more, in order to reduce dissonance between their attitudes and their behaviors. ", 3. they shifted their attitudes and perceived the task as more enjoyable Find out how you can intelligently organize your Flashcards. The participants were 71 male students in totality. A little more than 60 years ago, Leon Festinger published A Theory of Cognitive Dissonance (1957). Evanston, IL: Row & Peterson. {"cdnAssetsUrl":"","site_dot_caption":"Cram.com","premium_user":false,"premium_set":false,"payreferer":"clone_set","payreferer_set_title":"Psychology Chapter 12","payreferer_url":"\/flashcards\/copy\/psychology-chapter-12-1964384","isGuest":true,"ga_id":"UA-272909-1","facebook":{"clientId":"363499237066029","version":"v12.0","language":"en_US"}}. Three Ss (one in the One Dollar and two in the Twenty Dollar condition) refused to take the money and refused to be hired. Carlsmith performed an experiment regarding cognitive dissonance in The prediction [from 3 and 4 above] is that the larger the reward given to the subject, the smaller will be the subsequent opinion change. How can you get someone to like you, according to Ben Franklin? They were urged to cooperate in these interviews by being completely and honest. If you want to keep people from hating each other, work on eliminating hateful behavior. The E then paid the S one dollar (twenty dollars), made out a hand-written receipt form, and asked the S to sign it. are learned through experiences and contact with others, Cindy tastes peas for the first time and realizes she does not like them. ________ describes the situation in which people attend to the content of a message. The theory was first introduced in his 1957 book A Theory of Cognitive Dissonance and further elaborated in the article Cognitive Consequences of Forced Compliance (Festinger and Carlsmith, 1959). Five Ss (three in the One Dollar and two in the Twenty Dollar condition) indicated in the interview that they were suspicious about having been paid to tell the girl the experiment was fun and suspected that that was the real purpose of the experiment. In conclusion, people, when persuaded to lie without being given enough justification, will perform a task by convincing themselves of the falsehood, rather than telling a lie.